Classifying market regimes

Market regimes are clusters of persistent market conditions. They affect the relevance of investment factors and the success of trading strategies. The practical challenge is to detect market regime changes quickly and to backtest methods that may do the job. Machine learning offers a range of approaches to that end. Recent proposals include [1] supervised ensemble learning with random forests, which relate the market state to values of regime-relevant time series, [2] unsupervised learning with Gaussian mixture models, which fit various distinct Gaussian distributions to capture states of the data, [3] unsupervised learning with hidden Markov models, which relate observable market data, such as volatility, to latent state vectors, and [4] unsupervised learning with Wasserstein k-means clustering, which classifies market regimes based on the distance of observed points in a metric space.